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Each Month the Library will post an Educational Short on Our Website Newsletter.  These Shorts will include Bios on Famous Africans who have contributed to Our Struggle.
 

Dr. Patricia Bath

Dr. Bath an ophthalmologist from New York, but living in Los Angeles when she received her patent, became the first African American woman doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. Patricia Bath's patent (no. 4,744,360), a method for removing cataract lenses, transformed eye surgery, using a Laser device making the procedure more accurate.

Patricia Bath’s passionate dedication to the treatment and prevention of blindness led her to develop the Cataract Laserphaco Probe. The probe, patented in 1988, is designed to use the power of a laser to quickly and painlessly vaporize cataracts from patients’ eyes, replacing the more common method of using a grinding, drill-like device to remove the afflictions. With another invention, Bath was able to restore sight to people who had been blind for over 30 years. Patricia Bath also holds patents for her invention in Japan, Canada, and Europe.

Patricia Bath graduated from the Howard University School of Medicine in 1968 and completed specialty training in ophthalmology and corneal transplant at both New York University and Columbia University. In 1975, Bath became the first African-American woman surgeon at the UCLA Medical Center and the first woman to be on the faculty of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute. She is the founder and first president of the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Patricia Bath was elected to Hunter College Hall of Fame in 1988 and elected as Howard University Pioneer in Academic Medicine in 1993.

 

Janet Emerson Bashen - First African American female to hold a patent for a software invention.

In January 2006, Ms. Bashen became the first African American female to hold a patent for a software invention. The patented software, LinkLine, is a web-based application for EEO claims intake and tracking, claims management, document management and numerous reports. Bashen will soon release the federal sector counterpart, EEOFedSoft, MD715Link and the web-based AAPSoft for building Affirmative Action Plans.

Janet Emerson Bashen was issued U.S. patent #6,985,922 on January 10 2006, for a "Method, Apparatus and System for Processing Compliance Actions over a Wide Area Network."

Biography

Janet Emerson Bashen, formerly Janet Emerson, attended Alabama A&M until she married and relocated to Houston, Texas, where she now resides.

Bashen’s educational background includes a degree in legal studies and government from The University of Houston, and postgraduate studies at Rice University’s Jesse H Jones Graduate School of Administration. Bashen is also a graduate of Harvard University’s “Women and Power: Leadership in a New World.” Bashen will soon be pursuing her LLM from Northwestern California University School of Law.

Bashen maintains a very strong community commitment and is on the Board of Directors for the North Harris Montgomery County Community College District Foundation, and chairs the Corporate Advisory Board of the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, Inc., and is a Board member of the PrepProgram, a non-profit organization dedicated to preparing at-risk student athletes for college.

Bashen Corporation

Janet Emerson Bashen is the founder, President and CEO of Bashen Corporation, a leading human resources consulting firm that pioneered end-to-end EEO compliance administration services. Established in September 1994, Bashen built the business from her home office/kitchen table with no money, one client and a fervent commitment to succeed.

Janet Emerson Bashen and Bashen Corporation are continually recognized nationally for their business achievements. In May, 2000, Bashen testified before Congress regarding the effect of the FTC opinion letter on third party discrimination investigations. Bashen, along with Texas Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, were key figures in the change in legislation.

In October 2002, Bashen Corporation was named one of America’s entrepreneurial growth leaders by Inc Magazine in its annual Inc 500 ranking of the nation’s fastest-growing private companies, with an increase in sales of 552%. In October 2003, Bashen was given the Pinnacle Award by the Houston Citizens Chamber of Commerce. Bashen is also the recipient of the prestigious Crystal Award, presented by the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, Inc., for achievement in business.

Quote from Janet Emerson Bashen:

“My success and failures make me who I am and who I am is a black woman raised in the south by working class parents who tried to give me a better life by fostering a fervent commitment to succeed.” - Janet Emerson Bashen

 

drchancellorwilliams.jpg

 

 

Who was Dr. Chancellor James Williams?

Of the recent towering figures in the struggle to completely eradicate the pervasive racial myths clinging to the origins of Nile Valley Civilization, few scholars have had the impact of Dr. Chancellor James Williams (1898-1992).  Chancellor Williams, the youngest of five children, was born in Bennetsville, South Carolina December 22, 1898. His father had been a slave; his mother a cook, nurse, and evangelist. A stirring writer, Chancellor Williams achieved wide acclaim as the author of the 1971 publication, The Destruction of Black Civilization--Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.

Totally uncompromising, highly controversial, broadly sweeping in its range and immensely powerful in its scope, there have been few books published during the past half-century focusing on the African presence in antiquity that have so profoundly affected the consciousness of African people in search of their historical identity.  Dr. John Henrik Clarke, now an ancestor and a contemporary of Dr. Williams and one of our most outstanding scholars, described The Destruction of Black Civilization as "a foundation and new approach to the history of our race."  In The Destruction of Black Civilization Chancellor Williams successfully "shifted the main focus from the history of Arabs and Europeans in Africa to the Africans themselves--a history of the Blacks that is a history of Blacks."

The career of Chancellor Williams was spacious and varied; university professor, novelist, and author-historian.  He was the father of fourteen children.  Blind and in poor health, the last years of Dr. Williams' life were spent in a nursing home in Washington, D.C.  His contributions to the reconstruction of African civilization, however, stand as monuments and beacons reflecting the past, present and future of African people. 

Who is CARTER GODWIN WOODSON
"FATHER OF BLACK HISTORY"

Bio-Bibliography

Chicago Public Library
Woodson Regional Library
Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature
Dorothy E. Lyles, Compiler

Introduction

Those who have no record of what their forebears have accomplished lose the inspiration which comes from the teaching of biography and history.

These are the words of Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson, distinguished Black author, editor, publisher, and historian (December 1875 - April 1950). Carter G. Woodson believed that Blacks should know their past in order to participate intelligently in the affairs in our country. He strongly believed that Black history - which others have tried so diligently to erase - is a firm foundation for young Black Americans to build on in order to become productive citizens of our society.

Known as the "Father of Black History," Carter G. Woodson holds an outstanding position in early 20th century American history. Woodson authored numerous scholarly books on the positive contributions of Blacks to the development of America. He also published many magazine articles analyzing the contributions and role of Black Americans. He reached out to schools and the general public through the establishment of several key organizations and founded Negro History Week (precursor to Black History Month). His message was that Blacks should be proud of their heritage and that other Americans should also understand it.

Carter G. Woodson was born in New Canton, Buckingham County, Virginia, to former slaves Anne Eliza (Riddle) and James Henry Woodson. Although his parents could neither read nor write, Carter G. Woodson credits his father for influencing the course of his life. His father, he later wrote, insisted that "learning to accept insult, to compromise on principle, to mislead your fellow man, or to betray your people, is to lose your soul."

His father supported the family on his earnings as a carpenter. As one of a large and poor family, young Carter G. Woodson was brought up without the "ordinary comforts of life." He was not able to attend school during much of its five-month term because helping on the farm took priority over a formal education. Determined not to be defeated by this setback, Carter was able "largely by self-instruction to master the fundamentals of common school subjects by the time he was seventeen." Ambitious for more education, Carter and his brother Robert Henry moved to Huntington, West Virginia, where they hoped to attend the Douglass High School. However, Carter was forced to earn his living as a miner in Fayette County coal fields and was able to devote only a few months each year to his schooling. In 1895, a twenty-year-old Carter entered Douglass High School, where he received his diploma in less than two years.

From 1897 to 1900, Carter G. Woodson began teaching in Winona, Fayette County. In 1900, he returned to Huntington to become the principal of Douglass H.S.; he finally received his Bachelor of Literature degree from Berea College, Kentucky. From 1903 to 1907, he was a school supervisor in the Philippines. Later he traveled throughout Europe and Asia and studied at the Sorbonne University in Paris. In 1908, he received his M.A. from the University of Chicago, and in 1912, he received his Ph.D. in history from Harvard University.

During his lifetime, Dr. Woodson developed an important philosophy of history. History, he insisted, was not the mere gathering of facts. The object of historical study is to arrive at a reasonable interpretation of the facts. History is more than political and military records of peoples and nations. It must include some description of the social conditions of the period being studied.

Woodson's work endures in the institutions and activities he founded and promoted. In 1915, he and several friends in Chicago established the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. The following year, the Journal of Negro History appeared, one of the oldest learned journals in the United States. In 1926, he developed Negro History Week and in 1937 published the first issue of the Negro History Bulletin.

Dr. Woodson often said that he hoped the time would come when Negro History Week would be unnecessary; when all Americans would willingly recognize the contributions of Black Americans as a legitimate and integral part of the history of this country. Dr. Woodson's outstanding historical research influenced others to carry on his work. Among these have been such noted historians as John Hope Franklin, Charles Wesley, and Benjamin Quarles. Whether it's called Black history, Negro history, Afro-American history, or African American history, his philosophy has made the study of Black history a legitimate and acceptable area of intellectual inquiry. Dr. Woodson's concept has given a profound sense of dignity to all Black Americans.

CHRONOLOGY of DR. WOODSON'S LIFE

DATE

EVENT

1875, Dec. 19

Birth, New Canton, Virginia

1892

Left home to work on the railroad and then in the mines

1893

Family moved to Huntington, West Virginia

1895-1896

Attended Douglass High School, Huntington, West Virginia

1896-1897

Attended Berea College, Kentucky

1897, Sept.-Dec

Attended Lincoln University, Pennsylvania

1898-1900

Taught, Winona, West Virginia

1900-1903

Principal, Douglass High School, Huntington, West Virginia

June 18, 1902-Dec. 1903

Attended University of Chicago

1903

Bachelor of Literature from Berea College

1903-1907

Taught in the Philippines

1907

Traveled in Europe and Asia; attended the Sorbonne, Paris, France

1907, Oct.-Dec.

Attended University of Chicago

1908, Jan.-Aug.

Attended Graduate School, University of Chicago; received B.A. in March; M.A. in August

1908-1909

Attended Harvard University

1909-1918

Taught, M Street (Dunbar) High School, Washington, D.C.

1912

Ph.D. in History from Harvard University

1913 or 1914-1921

Member of the American Negro Academy

1915, Apr.

The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 published

1915, Sept.

Established the Association for the Study of Negro Life & History

1917, Aug.29

First Biennial meeting of ASNLH

1918

A Century of Negro Migration published

1918-1919

Principal, Armstrong Manual Training School, Washington, D.C.

1919-1920

Dean, School of Liberal Arts, Howard University

1920-1922

Dean, West Virginia Collegiate Institute (West Virginia State College); Established Associated Publishers

1921

Received grant from the Carnegie Institution; The History of the Negro Church published

1922

The Negro in Our History published

1924

Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the U.S. in 1830: Together with Absentee Ownership of Slaves in the U.S. in 1830 published

1925

Free Negro Heads of Families in the United States in 1830 published

1926

Negro Orators and Their Orations published; The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written During the Crisis, 1800-1860published; established Negro History Week; received Spingarn Medal

1927

Appointed to Advisory Committee, Interracial Relations Committee on Problems and Policy Social Science Research Council; appointed staff contributor Dictionary of American Biography

1928

Negro Makers of History published; African Myths: Together with Proverbs published

1928

Attended summer meeting of Social Science Research Council, Dartmouth College

1929

The Negro as a Businessman, with John H. Harmon, Jr. and Arnett G. Lindsay published

1929-1933, 1938

Established Woodson Collection at the Library of Congress

1930

The Negro Wage Earner, with Lorenzo Greene published; The Rural Negro published

1932

The encyclopedia controversy

1932-1935

Summers in Europe

1933

The Mis-Education of the Negro published

1934

The Negro Professional Man and the Community, with Special Emphasis on the Physician and the Lawyer published

1935

The Story of the Negro Retold published

1936

The African Background Outlined published

1937

Began publication of the Negro History Bulletin

1939

African Heroes and Heroinespublished

1941

Doctor of Laws from West Virginia State College

1950, April 3

Died suddenly

1958

Elected to the Ebony Hall of Fame

Books By Dr. Woodson

  • THE EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO PRIOR TO 1861: A HISTORY OF THE EDUCATION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES FROM THE BEGINNING OF SLAVERY TO THE CIVIL WAR. New York: Putnam's, 1915. Repr. Ayer Co., 1968 LC2741.W7
  • A CENTURY OF NEGRO MIGRATION. Washington, D.C.: ASNLH., 1918. Repr. Russell, 1969. E185.9.W89
  • THE HISTORY OF THE NEGRO CHURCH. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1921. BR563.N9W6
  • THE NEGRO IN OUR HISTORY. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1922. E185.9 .W89 1970
  • FREE NEGRO OWNERS OF SLAVES IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1830: TOGETHER WITH ABSENTEE OWNERSHIP OF SLAVES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1830, ed. Washington: ASNLH., 1924; Repr. Negro Univ. Press. E185.W8873
  • FREE NEGRO HEADS OF FAMILIES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1830: TOGETHER WITH BRIEF TREATMENT OF THE FREE NEGRO. Washington: ASNLH., 1925. F185.W887125
  • NEGRO ORATORS AND THEIR ORATIONS, ed. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1926. Repr. Russell, 1969. PS663.N4.W6
  • THE MIND OF THE NEGRO AS REFLECTED IN LETTERS WRITTEN DURING THE CRISIS, 1800-1860, ed. Washington: ASNLH., 1926. Repr. E185.W8877 1969b
  • NEGRO MAKERS OF HISTORY. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1928. E185.W85
  • AFRICAN MYTHS TOGETHER WITH PROVERBS: A SUPPLEMENTARY READER COMPOSED OF FOLK TALES FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF AFRICA. Adapted to use of children in the public schools. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1928. PE1127.G4 W7
  • THE NEGRO AS A BUSINESSMAN, joint author with John H. Harmon, Jr. and Arnett G. Lindsay. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1929. E185.8.H251
  • THE NEGRO WAGE EARNER, joint author with Lorenzo J. Greene. Washington: ASNLH., 1930. Repr. AMS Press. E185.G79
  • THE RURAL NEGRO. Washington: ASNLH., 1930. Repr. Russell, 1969. E185.86.W896
  • THE MIS-EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1933. Repr. AMS Press, 1972. LC2801.W6 1977
  • THE NEGRO PROFESSIONAL MAN AND THE COMMUNITY: WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE PHYSICIAN AND THE LAWYER. Washington: ASNLH., 1934 Repr. Negro University Press, 1969. Johnson Reprints E185.82.W88
  • THE STORY OF THE NEGRO RETOLD. Washington: Association Publishers, 1935. E185.W898
  • THE AFRICAN BACKGROUND OUTLINED. Washington: ASNLH., 1936. DT351.W89
  • AFRICAN HEROES AND HEROINES. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1939. DT3525.W66

Periodical Articles by Dr. Carter G. Woodson

  • "The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War." Journal of Negro History, 1(January, 1916): 1-22.
  • "Freedom and Slavery in Appalachian America." Journal of Negro History, 1(April, 1916): 132-150.
  • "The Beginnings of the Miscegenation of the Whites and Blacks." Journal of Negro History, 3(October, 1918): 335-353.
  • "Negro Life and History in Our Schools." Journal of Negro History, 4(July, 1919): 273-280.
  • "The Relations of Negroes and Indians in Massachusetts." Journal of Negro History, 5(January, 1920): 44-57.
  • "Fifty Years of Negro Citizenship as Qualified by the United States Supreme Court." Journal of Negro History, 6(January, 1921): 1-53.
  • "Early Negro Education in West Virginia." Journal of Negro History, 7(January, 1922): 23-63.
  • "Ten Years of Collecting and Publishing the Records of the Negro." Journal of Negro History, 10(October, 1925): 598-606.
  • "Negro History Week." Journal of Negro History, 11(April, 1926): 238.
  • "Emma Frances Grayson Merritt." Opportunity, 8(1930): 244-45.
  • "15 Outstanding Events in Negro History." Ebony, 5(February, 1950): 42-46.
  • "A Health Venture with Negro Management." Southern Workman, 60(1931): 518-24.
  • "Journalism in Schools." Howard University Record, 14(may, 1920): 356-366.
  • "The Mis-Education of the Negro." Crisis, 38(August, 1931): 266-67.
  • "Negro Labor in the United States, 1850-1925." by Charles H. Wesley Ph.D., American Historical Review, 33(1927): 154-56.
  • "Some Things Negroes Need to Do." Southern Workman, 51(January, 1922): 33-36.
  • "An Accounting of Twenty-Five Years." Journal of Negro History, 25(October, 1940): 422-431.
  • "The Anniversary Celebrated." Negro History Bulletin, (June, 1941): 198-199.
  • "The Negro in New England." Negro History Bulletin, 5(October, 1945): 421-431.
  • "Notes on the Bakongo." Journal of Negro History, 30(October, 1945): 421-431.
  • "Egypt." Negro History Bulletin, 13(November, 1949): 39-45; (December, 1949): 62-70; (January, 1950): 95.
  • "Thaddeus Stevens: Crusader." Negro History Bulletin, 13(December, 1949): 51-52.

Newspaper Articles

  • THE CHICAGO DEFENDER
    • April 16, 1932 "The Difficulty of Learning from the Depression."
    • May 21, 1932 "Is the Educated Negro a Liability?"
    • June 18, 1932 "Too Much Hindsight; Insufficient Foresight."
    • September 17, 1932 "Service Rather than Leadership."
    • October 1, 1932 "The Black Man and Europe."
    • September 7, 1935 "Future Task of Race History is Outlined."
    • December 28, 1935 "More Teachers, Texts, Needed for Growth of Race History."
  • NEW YORK AGE
    • May 30, 1931 "Why Highly Educated Ministers Preach to Benches."
    • June 6, 1931 "The Mis-Education of the Negro in Economics."
    • June 13, 1931 "Politics in the Schools."
    • August 8, 1931 "The Negro Must Appeal to his Own."
    • August 15, 1931 "A United Negro Church."
    • February 10, 1934 "Distinguished Between Significant and Insignificant."
    • February 23, 1935 "Woodson Misquoted on the Church."
    • January 4, 1936 "Why the Negro Lacks his Tenth."
    • February 22, 1936 "Keeping the Record."
  • PITTSBURGH COURIER
    • September 3, 1932 "Independent Thinking and Voting is Needed."
    • December 17, 1932 "Women Should Have More Voice in Our Affairs --Woodson."
  • WASHINGTON TRIBUNE
    • December 13, 1924 "Omega Psi Phi Fraternity to Hold Annual Conclave Here."
    • December 27-31, "Among the Prominent Omega Men Who Will be Honored at this Smoker 1924 is Carter G. Woodson."

Microfilm

THE CARTER G. WOODSON COLLECTION OF NEGRO PAPERS AND RELATED DOCUMENTS, 1803-1936, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress
10 reels, 35mm microfilm
Correspondence, diaries, addresses, legal documents, newspaper clippings, and other papers relating to Negro history, the JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, race relations, slavery, discrimination, Washington, D.C., employment opportunities, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, State and local politics, and business. The papers of Benjamin T. Banner, Whitefield McKinlay, and John T. Clark are included in this collection.

Books About Dr. Woodson

  • Goggins, Jacqueline. Carter G. Woodson: A Life in Black History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993. E175.5.W65

  • Williams, Alvin L. Carter G. Woodson: Scientific Historian of African American History and Education. Unpublished Ph.D. Diss., Loyola University of Chicago, 1994. E185.97.W77W54

Periodical Articles About Dr. Woodson

  • "About the Founder." Negro History Bulletin. 23(February, 1960): 120.
  • Alexander, R.P. "Tribute and Challenge." Negro Digest. 14(September, 1965): 40-51.
  • Behling, Agnes. "The Father of Negro History." Negro Digest. 12(November, 1962): 6-9.
  • Bennett, Lerone, Jr. "Chronicles of Black Courage. Father of Black History Changed Vision of Black America." Ebony. 38(February, 1983): 31, 33-34.
  • Bennett, Lerone, Jr. "Reading, Riting and Racism." Ebony. 22(March, 1967): 130-38.
  • Bethune, Mary. "True Leadership Is Timeless." Negro History Bulletin. 13(May, 1950): 173.
  • "Black History: Editorial." Crisis. 82(April, 1975): 113-14.
  • Brewer, William M. "Fiftieth Anniversary of the Journal of Negro History." Journal of Negro History. 51(April, 1966):75-97.
  • Brooks, A.N.D. "Dr. Woodson, the Inspiration." Negro History Bulletin. 20(December, 1956): 71.
  • "Carter J. Woodson Stamp to be Issue in Honor of Father of Black History." Jet. 65(January 23, 1984): 22.
  • "Carter Godwin Woodson, 1875-1950." American Sociological Review. 15(June, 1950): 441.
  • Clarke, John H. "Carter G. Woodson and the Importance of Black History Week." Black Collegian. 5(January-February, 1975): 42-43.
  • "Death of the Founder." Negro History Bulletin. 13(May, 1950): 170.
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. "Editorial: The Journal of Negro History." Crisis. 13(December, 1916): 61.
  • Fontaine, William T. "Social Determination in the Writings of Negro Scholars." American Journal of Sociology. 49(January, 1944): 302-313.
  • Franklin, J.H. "Place of Carter G. Woodson in American Historiography." Negro History Bulletin. 13(May, 1950): 174.
  • "A Great American." Negro History Bulletin. 13(May, 1950): 180.
  • "Guardian of the Torch of Black History." Ebony. 35(February, 1980): 94-98.
  • Holmes, John Haynes. "On Presenting the Spingarn Medal." Crisis. 32(September, 1926): 231-34.
  • Logan, Rayford M. "Phylon Profile VI: Carter G. Woodson." Phylon. 6(4th Quarter, 1945): 315-21.
  • Logan, Rayford M. "Carter G. Woodson: Mirror and Molder of his Time, 1875-1950." Journal of Negro History. 58(January, 1973): 1-17.
  • Meier, August and Elliot Rudwick. "J. Franklin Jameson, Carter G. Woodson, and the Foundation of Black Historiography." The American Historical Review. 89(October, 1984): 1005-1015.
  • "Prophet With Honor." Negro History Bulletin. 17(April, 1954): 168.
  • "Newest Member of Hall of Fame. Honor Goes to Historian Carter G. Woodson." Ebony. (February, 1958): 26.
  • Stuckey, S. "Du Bois, Woodson and the Spell of Africa." Negro Digest. 16(February, 1967): 20-24.
  • Scally, Sister Anthony. "Over the Mountain." Negro History Bulletin. 17(April, 1954): 168.
  • White, Alvin. "Godfather of Black History." Sepia. 25(February, 1976): 58-62.

References to Dr. Woodson in Reference Books

  • CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE NEGRO IN AMERICA, ed. Peter M. Bergman. New York: New American Library, 1969.
  • CURRENT BIOGRAPHY: WHO'S NEWS AND WHY 1944. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1944.
  • DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, Supplement Four, 1946-1950, ed. John A. Garraty and Edward T. James. New York: Charles Scribners & Sons, 1974.
  • DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN NEGRO BIOGRAPHY, ed. Rayford M. Logan and Michael R. Winston. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1982.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, ed. John A. Garraty and Jerome L. Sternstein. New York: Harper, 1974.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BLACK AMERICA, ed. Augustus Low. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981.
  • INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF NEGRO LIFE AND HISTORY, Robinson, Wilhelmena B. HISTORICAL NEGRO BIOGRAPHIES. New York: Publishers Co., 1967 [under the auspices of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.]
  • NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. New York: James T. White, 1953. Vol 38.
  • NEGRO ALMANAC, ed. Harry A. Ploski and Ernest Kaiser. New York: Bellweather Co., 1971.
  • WHO'S WHO IN AMERICA: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF NOTABLE LIVING MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES. Chicago: Marquis, 1926-1950.
  • WHO'S WHO IN COLORED AMERICA: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF NOTABLE LIVING PERSONS OF NEGRO DESCENT IN THE UNITED STATES. New York: Who's Who in Colored America Corp., 1933, 1937, 1940, 1944.
  • WHO WAS WHO IN AMERICA: A COMPANION BIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE TO WHO'S WHO IN AMERICA, Vol. 3. Chicago: Marquis, 1960.

 

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